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The Bank of Japan is believed to have spent more than US$ 51 billion in the market to pull back the yen from its historic depreciation. Meanwhile, home appliance and PC production levels remain low and demand for smartphones is unstable, whereas cars are said to be recovering.

Copper scrap generation has been low given that copper-related industries have yet to recover. The brass industry in particular has been producing increasingly less over the last 27 months.

The premium on green aluminium (less CO2 emissions) is lower than in other parts of the world. Domestic ADC has become cheap relative to imported ADC owing to the depreciation of the yen.